The Eye as A LED

As I theorized in Hawking Eye Radiation, I think there are some good reasons to believe that the eye produces light. The question becomes, ‘how does it produce this light?’

I learned recently that LEDs act as light sensors when turned off. I think that this could be the way that the eye works. I don’t mean how the eye works in the traditional sense, but how this potential added sense could be explained.

If the eye produces light during normal hours, even if it is a relatively small amount, perhaps the light shuts off at a certain point each day. Maybe when we get tired. And if the eye shuts off when we get tired, current would flow through this light sensor, increasing the electric charge on the brain. And that would make the subject more susceptible to seizures.

Next, is to determine, if true, how this system works.

Emission Theory

Until relatively recently, there were two camps of people when it came to eyesight: extramission and intromission. Those who believed in extramission believed that light rays exited the eyes causing sight, and those who believed in intromission believed that sight was the result of light entering the eyes.

First held by Empedocles, extramission theory was held by Plato, Euclid, Ptolemy, and even Da Vinci. I say this to say: this theory was not just passing idea. Some of the greatest thinkers in history held that it was true.

Of course, that doesn’t make it true. To me, that just makes it worth exploring.

My theory is not exactly the same as these thinkers. I am not proposing that we see by emanating rays from our eyes. I am just proposing that, under certain conditions, the eyes can emanate light.

Why do I think this? Because I think it helps explain some of the strangest unsolved mysteries of science: Why some animals have slanted pupils, Why birds crash into glass, How birds navigate, and why some people can feel eye contact.

I think these reasons in tandem makes a strong case. And lastly, I propose that you test for yourself in Smell with Your Eyes. Because I think that if you can experience it for yourself, you may just believe it too.

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_theory_(vision)

https://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Emission_theory_%28vision%29.html

http://nivea.psycho.univ-paris5.fr/FeelingSupplements/AncientVisions.htm

Rethinking Epilepsy

Preliminary Reading: Laser Cascade, Too Much Light, and How a Flicker Causes a Seizure

I’ve recently covered a completely new electrical function of the human body. The input mechanism as well as the necessary output balance.  It the last post, we defined a seizure as the body’s natural way to rid the body of excess electrical charge.

Risk Factors:

  • Babies who are born small for their age
  • Babies who have seizures in the first month of life
  • Babies who are born with abnormal areas in the brain
  • Bleeding into the brain
  • Abnormal blood vessels in the brain
  • Serious brain injury or lack of oxygen to the brain
  • Brain tumors
  • Infections of the brain: abscess, meningitis, or encephalitis
  • Stroke resulting from blockage of arteries
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Conditions with intellectual and developmental disabilities
  • Seizures occurring within days after head injury (“early post-traumatic seizures”)
  • Family history of epilepsy or fever-related seizures
  • Alzheimer’s disease (late in the illness)
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Fever-related (febrile) seizures that are unusually long
  • Long episodes of seizures or repeated seizures called status epilepticus
  • Use of illegal drugs such as cocaine

Triggers:

  • Missed medication
  • Lack of sleep or disrupted sleep
  • Illness (both with and without fever)
  • Psychological stress
  • Heavy alcohol use or seizures after alcohol withdrawal
  • Use of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as Ecstasy
  • Over-the-counter drugs, prescription medications or supplements that decrease the effectiveness of seizure medicines
  • Nutritional deficiencies: vitamins and minerals
  • Poor eating habits, such as long times without eating, dehydration or not enough fluids
  • The menstrual cycle or hormonal changes
  • Flashing lights or patterns
  • Specific activities, noises or foods

The cause of most cases of epilepsy is unknown. Now we have a puzzle worth solving.

Certain disorders occur more often in people with epilepsy, depending partly on the epilepsy syndrome present. These include depression, anxiety, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and migraine. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects three to five times more children with epilepsy than children without the condition. ADHD and epilepsy have significant consequences on a child’s behavioral, learning, and social development. Epilepsy is also more common in children with autism.

What happens biologically during a seizure?

seizure is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Outward effects vary from uncontrolled shaking movements involving much of the body with loss of consciousness (tonic-clonic seizure), to shaking movements involving only part of the body with variable levels of consciousness (focal seizure), to a subtle momentary loss of awareness (absence seizure).  Most of the time these episodes last less than two minutes and it takes some time to return to normal. Loss of bladder control may occur.

What causes a seizure? There is evidence that epileptic seizures are usually not a random event. Seizures are often brought on by factors such as stress, alcohol abuse, flickering light, or a lack of sleep, among others. The term seizure threshold is used to indicate the amount of stimulus necessary to bring about a seizure. Seizure threshold is lowered in epilepsy.

Even in someone with epilepsy, there are factors that make this event non-random. Seizures do not happen all the time. People have certain triggers, and warning signs that a seizure is coming. Meaning that the mental state that causes seizures is not stationary, and it is not random. The fact that it can be triggered means that it can be targeted and mitigated.

How can we best describe the mental states that produce seizures? High entropy. We describe in previous articles those people with Alzheimer’s and Autism as very high entropy. Also, the fact that psychological stress and lack of sleep may be triggers add to the case that the seizures are caused by a heightened brain state.


What about Tourette’s? Would a Tourette tic be considered a mild seizure?

Here are the risk factors associated with Tourette’s:

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Learning disabilities
  • Sleep disorders
  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Pain related to tics, especially headaches
  • Anger-management problems

If time doesn’t exist in the brain, and a seizure is abnormal electric activity. Then Tourette’s is epilepsy. The duration and frequency of the seizures is different.

IMG_6397

Tourette’s is defined by these tics. Involuntary muscle movements or speech. We know that the involuntary muscle movements are electrical signals. And the speech is too.

If Tourette’s is a series of involuntary electrical signals, it is no different than epilepsy. If the two are the same, why is one so much more frequent than the other? It’s the stress and rest pattern of the brain. Once the brain reaches the seizure threshold, it produces an undesired result. Higher energy individuals would naturally trend higher on this scale.

Sources:

  1. http://www.johnhamelministries.org/be_free_from_epilepsy.htm
  2. https://www.epilepsy.com/start-here/about-epilepsy-basics/what-happens-during-seizure
  3. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/why-do-flashing-images-cause-seizures-180961504/
  4. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/epilepsy
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy
  6. https://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/medications-treat-seizures#1
  7. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tourette-syndrome/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350470
  8. https://www.epilepsyresearch.org.uk/epilepsy-rates-raised-in-patients-with-tourettes-syndrome/
  9. https://www.popsci.com/science/article/2010-09/researchers-translate-thoughts-speech-potentially-allowing-locked-patients-communicate

How a Flicker Causes a Seizure

Preliminary reading: Laser Cascade and Too Much Light

We know that some people can have seizures brought on by flashing lights. Previously, I tried to tie this to seasickness. Let’s explore this concept from another perspective. 

What happens physiologically when a light turns on? Your pupils contract. Then as the light turns off, your pupils dilate, controlling the amount of light that enters the eye. If we put the person in front of a strobe light, the cycle of light/dark could outpace the mechanism designed to keep excess light out. At very least, there is a lag time between the light, and the eye’s adaptation to the light. This process, over the course of seconds, gains photons in the eye. It simply cannot keep up with the rate of change.

Factors that are pertinent here are max pupil size, resting pupil size, and speed of contraction. With these three factors we can accurately draw a curve for the pupil size over time. 

IMG_6396
Here’s how I see it.

In normal individuals, this is not an issue. But in with people with epilepsy, they already exist at a higher energy state. A bunch of extra photons could push them to their charge threshold. 

A seizure is the body’s built in mechanism to remove excess electric charge. 

Sources:

  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23265-x
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03137.x
  3. https://www.medpagetoday.com/neurology/seizures/3552

Too Much Light: The Evolutionary Purpose of Blurred Vision

There is a limit to the amount of charge that your brain can handle. We also know that at that threshold point, there is a laser cascade

So what would mental strain do that helps the body? Protect it from excess light. I’m sure you’ve gotten mad and seen your vision blur. What is the evolutionary purpose of this mechanism? To reduce the amount of light that hits your brain. Because in the rage state, time slows down. And when time is slow, you would gain more light in the same amount of time. If light is in part the electricity that fuels the body, the eyes would adapt to the new condition by preventing excess light from reaching the brain. If too much light is a bad thing, the body has to have a mechanism to prevent it. And you can’t just blink constantly.

It really doesn’t matter how it works. The truth is that it works. Force your eyes to strain and you see blur. The condition protects your eyes from excess radiation, protects your brain from excess electric charge.

Why would old people not be able to see up close? Farsightedness is a strange and pretty predictable part of aging. The real question is: what is the purpose of it. Essentially, the light is just not focused properly on the retina. According to this theory, the vision problem would actually be a symptom that would help protect them from gaining too much electric charge from the incoming light. 

There are all sorts of medical conditions and medications associated with blurred vision. It’s important to think twice about this symptom, because our body strives for equilibrium. And if the vision blurs, it blurs for a reason. 

Laser Cascade

Laser stands for light amplification by stimulating emission of radiation. Why it’s important to me, is it gives me a mechanism for some strange phenomenon. Not a simple one, but if I would’ve just paid better attention in physics class, I would have probably put all this together much sooner.

So how do we get excited electrons in the brain or body? Electrons are already in the body. The body is made of atoms, and those atoms each have electrons. How do we excite them? We add energy. Light is one way to do this.

If we can show that light energizes the body, at some point some of the electrons in the body could become excited. The body has a threshold for charge, the straw that breaks the camels back is the last photon that enters the system before the cascade.

The last photon in before excitement triggers the cascade. It is replicated in frequency, wavelength, and phase. Bringing an electron from an excited state to a ground state produces a photon. And photons prefer to be similar, thus one excites another and another.

The body could expel these produced photons out of the brain’s one true opening to the outside world: the pupil. There is also an internal mechanism for disbursing this excess charge, that we will get to later. 

Sources:

  1. https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/26/1708574114.abstract
  2. https://escooptics.com/blogs/news/84277891-what-determines-the-wavelength-of-a-laser
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyaloid_canal

 

The Mighty UV: Birds Use Ultraviolet Emission to Navigate

There are good reasons why birds fly in a “V” pattern. But how do they do it? 

With our Seventh Sense theory, most animals have the ability to emit ultraviolet rays. But we know that birds can see in ultraviolet. So if they can see in ultraviolet, that means they should be able to see other birds 7th Sense. It’s essentially gaze detection on steroids.

Why do I think this is true? Personal experience. When I was incapacitated with anxiety, I noticed something else that was strange: birds would fly in front of my car. I know what you’re thinking: so what, that happens to everyone. Let’s just say it wasn’t uncommon for ten birds to fly in front of my car in a five minute span. Naturally, I began to ask myself if I was possibly causing this. But if I can emit UV rays, they would be able to see them.

If birds can see these UV rays, can they use them to stay in line on these long flights?

I think so. If you use the lead bird as a reference point, each subsequent bird locks one eye on the bird in front of them, and the other on the path ahead. Birds eyes are fixed, but this sense is not. With this UV gridlock pattern, the birds can easily stay in their lanes, and check to see if someone is off course. Imagine me holding a laser pointer telling you where to stand for a hike. It makes it super simple. Not only that, it helps explain the precision in which they do it. 

In a “V”, the birds maximize aerodynamics and visibility, using their seventh sense of UV detection and emission to align their formations with precision.

Sources:

  1. https://www.nwf.org/Magazines/National-Wildlife/2012/AugSept/Animals/Bird-Vision
  2. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160712093355.htm
  3. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/01/why-birds-fly-v-formation
  4. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130307092340.htm
  5. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2014/01/15/birds-that-fly-in-a-v-formation-use-an-amazing-trick/
  6. https://elifesciences.org/articles/45071
  7. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40657-017-0092-3
  8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1690328/

Eye Whites: A Big Human Advantage

Questions Answered: Why do babies need naps? Why do Chinese people have folds over their eyes? What is the evolutionary purpose of the whites of our eyes? Why do we squint?

Do the eyes cool the brain? If they did, it would explain everything. The smaller brain that would tend to overheat, would have an extra heat sink. The larger brain, prone get too cool, would have a smaller cooling mechanism.

Are Asian eyes smaller? Not exactly. Their optic discs are larger. But they have a fold on their eyelid, which, to me, would lower the surface area on the outside air and cooling function if the eyes. How would our theory explain the purpose of this fold? Because they have larger brains, they have potential for lower entropy. Since their eyes cannot change size, their bodies do what they can to adapt.

Babies have this fold. Babies have the biggest head in proportion to their bodies. And coincidentally, birds lose a similar fold when exposed to 24-hour light for a long enough period.

Yes, the eyes cool the brain. But not even on the same order of magnitude of sleep. The purpose of the whites of the eyes is literally to cool [which explains the color]. The magnitude of this cooling is on par with the stress of the light in the first place. So the net effect of the stress+cooling is the important part. If the brain is large and cool, smaller eyes trend the brain entropy positive. If the brain is small and hot, the net effect of the eyes would be negative.

Squints do not change the pupils. They block out the whites of the eyes. And the pupils do change to adapt to changing light as well. Pupil dilation does not change the surface area of the eye.

So why would you squint when you walk outside? Well, if the temperature outside is warmer than your body, a squint would actually cool your brain. The lower the surface area on the hotter outdoor air, the cooler your brain can get.

If it’s cold, a squint would do the opposite. My minimizing surface area exposed to the cold air, the eye adapts by doing what it can to warm the brain: squints.

Humans are the only among 633 species of primates with eye whites. What is our advantage over the animal kingdom? Thought. The eye whites or sclera allows humans to think more and faster than any other being on the planet. 

Why do babies need naps? And why does that nap schedule evolve?Their heads are growing, but their eye size stays fixed. They have big heads relative to their bodies, and big eyes relative to their heads. But their heads are still small in comparison to everyone else. Meaning less total stress can accumulate before a nap. But bigger eyes (relative to head size) allow the brain to operate at a higher energy level. Noses are smallest, so it is essential that the eyes are biggest.

Therefore, the purpose of the whites of your eyes is to cool your brain. The eye is a beautiful and perfect equilibrium device, giving humans a distinct thought advantage over the rest of the animal kingdom.

Sources:

  1. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1985-10-13-8503100141-story,amp.html
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12665226/
  3. https://www.techtimes.com/articles/95875/20151015/why-humans-weird-eyes.htm

Size Matters: The Evolutionary Case for the Larger Nose

The race with the smallest skulls has the biggest noses. According to the rest of our theory, what does that mean? It means that the engine of the smaller brain gets hot more quickly, so a wider nose allows for greater airflow as well as less warming of the air.

Essentially, the warmer the climate, the larger the nose. But the climate doesn’t explain everything. There are plenty of people with big noses in cooler climates. 

Einstein was known for his huge nose. And he’s also famous for one of the most unique and powerful minds in the past 200 years. If you assume that his brain was more powerful than the average person, he’d need more airflow to support it. 

Peoples noses and ears grow throughout their lives. We’ll have to get into the ears later. What’s important here is that the nose can keep growing. 

The eyes cool the brain. We’re going to develop this idea in a future post. While I think there is evidence to support it, the eyes simply do not grow, so they cannot appropriately adapt the brain to greater stress. They do have another function that relieves stress, they can emit electromagnetic waves

The brain can get bigger. And it actually does until a certain point. People’s brains begin to shrink after their fortieth birthday. 

So yes, the climate matters. But not just the external climate. The internal climate as well. There are a couple of actions the body can take to neutralize the higher brain entropy: balding and a bigger nose.

What determines the solution? Let me remind you of all of our studies on eyesight. Essentially, poor eyesight is a symptom of high brain entropy. If you opted for glasses or contacts, you may force your body into a constant elevated state. The brain thinks it’s at equilibrium, but it’s not. So instead of increasing airflow [with nose enlargement], it reduces entropy by cooling the top of the head.

Sources:

  1. https://www.popsci.com/climate-nose-shape-evolution/
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1288/00005537-199103000-00009
  3. https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006616
  4. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/mar/16/climate-shaped-the-human-nose-researchers-say
  5. https://www.verywellhealth.com/how-your-nose-grows-with-age-2223746
  6. https://www.zwivel.com/blog/sniffing-nose-shapes-12-common-nose-types/

We Are All Pit Vipers

Alternate Titles: Solving Slanted Pupils and The Seventh Sense

Last week we argued that the eyes produced radiation under some conditions. The question becomes, if this is true, what is the purpose of this sense in the animal kingdom? 

 

venomous_vs_non-venomous

 

Why do some animals have slit pupils?

The predator/prey model doesn’t explain all cases. It basically says that the predators have the slit [elliptical pupils] and the prey have round pupils. This works for most cases, but not all. Most cats have them, but not big cats like lions or tigers. Some foxes have slanted pupils as well.

So it seems like small animals, who eat meat, need extra depth perception. The theory is that the slits in their eyes give them an added sense of precision for their attacks.

The two slits cross at the point of focus, and that point would be direct back in to the nasal cavity, or whatever sensory organ receives the eye-transmitted signal. The smaller the slit, the more precise the attack.

Pit vipers are the tell all. I think it’s important to know that the pit is a sensory organ, but we don’t know exactly how it works. All I’m saying is that I agree that the pit is the sensor, but a sensor needs a probe. And in these cases, the probe comes from the eye slit. With the very precise infrared rays, the pit information is useful. For example, knowing that there is a creature nearby is useful, but knowing exactly where it is in relation to your eye and pit is crucial to attack. I’d argue that the nose or nasal cavity is a similar pit.

What about cats? 

Some breeds have slanted pupils. They have this sense too. Their vision is terrible, and yet they can take down birds, mid-flight, bugs, and all sorts of other little creatures. These types of attacks require something more than what cats possess. But, if you can assume for a moment that the eyes emit radiation, and now that there is some sort of pit on the face of the cat. The cat becomes an infrared warrior. More precise, and adapted for nighttime attacks.

Ocean-bottom sharks have oblique slant pupils. Because they attack upwards. Or so they can attack upwards, depending on the way you look at things. 

Sidebar solution: What do rays eat? Things that live just under the ocean floor. Why does that matter? Because I just read on Wikipedia that they have an “electric organ” that science did not know the purpose of. So here you go: The tail hangs down just slightly below the body of the animal so that the electrical pulses are focused on the wide body of the animal. So whatever pulses it’s sending with its tail, it’s receiving with its body.

What about the cuttlefish? 

cuttlefish-eye-548901005677

This is the strangest eye in the animal kingdom [and probably the strangest creature]. The “w” as it is commonly referred to essentially is two vertical slits connected by a horizontal slit. Furthermore, the curve of the vertical slits is similar to the curve of the middle hump. If we assume that the vertical slits emit infrared radiation, the focal point of these probes would be the center hump of the horizontal slit. It even has the look of an outline of a snake, because it handles the sending and receiving of these infrared rays.

Source:

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuttlefish
  2. https://www.livescience.com/51787-why-cats-have-vertical-pupils.html
  3. https://oceana.org/blog/5-incredible-ways-shark-and-ray-eyes-create-super-sensitive-vision
  4. https://www.petmd.com/cat/slideshows/ultimate-guide-cat-visionectric_ray
  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroreception#Electrocommunication
  6. https://www.columbiatribune.com/c254f44a-a76e-11e2-87fb-10604b9f6eda.html
  7. https://www.quora.com/Why-do-cats%E2%80%99-eyes-get-big-before-they-attack-a-person
  8. http://jeb.biologists.org/content/209/1/18
  9. http://www.koryoswrites.com/nonfiction/the-functions-of-different-pupil-shapes/
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_vision
  11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skate_(fish)#Diet_/_Feeding
  12. http://www.animalplanet.com/pets/other-pets/snake-anatomy/
  13. https://clinicalgate.com/venomous-snakebites-in-north-america/
  14. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698913000539
  15. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/08/07/430149677/eye-shapes-of-the-animal-world-hint-at-differences-in-our-lifestyles
  16. https://sharkuniversity.org/2017/02/07/pupils/